AA Amyloidosis: Pathogenesis and Targeted Therapy | oneAMYLOIDOSISvoice
Scientific Articles

AA Amyloidosis: Pathogenesis and Targeted Therapy

key information

source: Annual Review of Pathology

year: 2015

authors: Westermark GT, Fändrich M, Westermark P

summary/abstract:

The understanding of why and how proteins misfold and aggregate into amyloid fibrils has increased considerably during recent years. Central to amyloid formation is an increase in the frequency of the β-sheet structure, leading to hydrogen bonding between misfolded monomers and creating a fibril that is comparably resistant to degradation. Generation of amyloid fibrils is nucleation dependent, and once formed, fibrils recruit and catalyze the conversion of native molecules. In AA amyloidosis, the expression of cytokines, particularly interleukin 6, leads to overproduction of serum amyloid A (SAA) by the liver.

A chronically high plasma concentration of SAA results in the aggregation of amyloid into cross-β-sheet fibrillar deposits by mechanisms not fully understood. Therefore, AA amyloidosis can be thought of as a consequence of long-standing inflammatory disease. This review summarizes current knowledge about AA amyloidosis. The systemic amyloidoses have been regarded as intractable conditions, but improvements in the understanding of fibril composition and pathogenesis over the past decade have led to the development of a number of different therapeutic approaches with promising results.

organization: Uppsala University, Sweden; Ulm University, Germany

DOI: 10.1146/annurev-pathol-020712-163913

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