source: Amyloidosis Foundation
authors: Teresa Coelho, Bo-Goran Ericzon, Rodney Falk, Donna Grogan, Shu-ichi Ikeda, Mathew Maurer, Violaine Plante-Bordeneuve, Ole Suhr, Pedro Trigo summary/abstract:
Amyloidosis is a systemic disorder characterized by extra cellular deposition of a protein-derived material, known as amyloid, in multiple organs. Amyloidosis occurs when native or mutant polypeptides misfold and aggregate as fibrils. The amyloid deposits cause local damage to the cells around which they are deposited leading to a variety of clinical symptoms. There are at least 23 different proteins associated with the amyloidoses.
The most well-known type of amyloidosis is associated with a hematological disorder, in which amyloid fibrils are derived from monoclonal immunoglobulin light-chains (AL amyloidosis). This is associated with a clonal plasma cell disorder, closely related to and not uncommonly co-existing with multiple myeloma.
Chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or chronic infections such as bronchiectasis are associated with chronically elevated levels of the inflammatory protein, serum amyloid A, which may misfold and cause AA amyloidosis.