source: Heart Failure Reviews
authors: Zhao L, Fang Q summary/abstract:
The heart, like any organ in the body, is susceptible to amyloid deposition. Although more than 30 types of protein can cause amyloidosis, only two types commonly deposit in the ventricular myocardium: amyloid light chain and amyloid transthyretin.
Amyloid cardiomyopathy is usually a major determinant of patient outcomes, and the diagnosis of heart involvement can be often relatively under-diagnosed, owing to nonspecific presenting symptoms and signs at a subclinical stage.
The diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis is usually performed by endomyocardial biopsy; however, the invasive nature and related high-risk complications restrict its wide use in clinical settings. Recently, with the advent of innovative techniques used for evaluating cardiac amyloidosis, noninvasive methods become increasingly important, especially in earlier diagnosis, distinguishing typing, risk prediction and response to treatment. Here, we will review recent developments in the noninvasive methods used in the assessment of cardiac amyloidosis, focused on the laboratory biomarkers and imaging modalities.organization:
Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China DOI:
10.1007/s10741-016-9580-5 read more full text source